Rust, Stem, Stripe , or Leaf. Do you have it?

Most new southern varieties are Rust resistant.

Now we have that out of the way – what is in your field?

Compare the wheat you planted against the UGA 2014 wheat chart. This resource will help you in determining what could be in your wheat.

Rust. Please check using a white cloth to see if you can rub off any spores. The colors to look for are red/brown, yellow, orange, or any combination. (See LSU chart below.) Wait two days after a rain to do this as rain will wash off the spores. Rust is very aggressive when the temperatures are right and must be controlled quickly. Do not allow many days to pass before you check your fields. Call me if you find Rust on a AGS variety. 

Stripe Rust, LSU

Stripe Rust, vis LSU

Powdery Mildew and BYD (Barley Yellow Dwarf). Look for white to gray powdery fungal growth on leaves and leaf sheaths. Tip yellowing, purple leaves, and/or twisting of leaves are symptoms of BYD, which is a virus, and fungicides will not control it. You must put something out to control aphids before you get the virus. See LSU info on BYD below.

BYD (Barley Yellow Dwarf, LSU)

BYD (Barley Yellow Dwarf)

Cold/Frost Damage. You could just have cold/frost damaged wheat. The conditions have been right cold-frost damage, and some early planted field have it.  Yellowing, streaking, tip burn,  and purple tips are caused by frost/cold damage.

Manganese Deficiency. Manganese is another problem in fields with HIGH Ph. The photo is of a confirmed manganese deficient field.

Manganese Deficient field.

Manganese Deficient field.

I generally find the flag leaf to be the one of the things I want to protect, along with the wheat head. Leaf Blotch, Fusarium, and Glume Blotch must be controlled to have good wheat yields. Fungicides do not trans-locate well and need to be on the surface they are to protect. Please wait as long as possible or if you must spray early then plan to spray twice.

Tissue test your flag leaf. Do not get the largest tiller in each plant, as it will get the first choice of N and give you a skewed reading. I prefer to ample from one of the smaller tillers because that is where your yield will be increased. These smaller /later tillers will dry-up if you do not have proper fertilization.

Good Growing!

*Information obtained from 2015 Georgia Pest Control Handbook (http//www.caes.uga.edu/publications) , Intensive Wheat Management in Georgia, and LSU. As always, follow label and dispose of empties properly.

Wheat/Oat Update

If your wheat/oats are 4 inches (three or more tillers) tall or taller then you may need to put out your winter weed control. The weeds have really been growing because of the warm weather, and also can really hurt your yields. Chemical prices are up this year so please don’t cut out application because of the price, it will pay to control the weeds.

Take time to walk your wheat fields while the wheat is still young and you can count the plants per foot of row. If you find a row that is too thin or too thick flag that row on your drill and correct the seeding rate before you plant next year. A count of 18-20 plants per foot (7-8 inch row) is great, 25-30 is way too thick.

Weed Control
(See Small Grains 2014 from UGA)

Harmony Extra SC, per label always add surfactant per label.

Express Plus MCPA, per label always add surfactant per label. Gives good to excellent control on most winter weeds. DO NOT USE THIS ON OATS.

POWERFLEX and others, per label gives excellent weed and ryegrass control. Read label for plant back restrictions.

Good Growing!

** Information obtained from 2014 Georgia Pest Control Handbook and Intensive Wheat Management in Georgia. As always follow label and dispose of empties properly.

Wheat Update

Most wheat is at Feekes scale 10.1 or older, this is often called the early heading stage. At this growth rate wheat is about 3-5 days behind normal heading date. You need to spray a late as possible per the label of fungicide used, because most fungicides do not translocate well in the plant. We need to protect the head of wheat and the flag leaf during this time. You may want to add an insecticide to help control aphids and stink bugs. The picture below is a stink bug on the head of triticale in an oat field.

Stink bug in oats

 

Fungicides

Headline, Stratego, Quilt, Quadris, Folicur+Tilt, or one of many others.

All should be applied per the label of fungicide used. Most full heading (10.3) should occur before April 1, 2013.

Univeristy of Illinois

Please be sure to visit and support this site, www.georgiaweather.net – it has a lot of good information.

Good Growing!

*Follow label on all Pesticides, rinse and dispose of empties properly. Info Georgia Pest Management Handbook 2014

 

Wheat Update

Wheat has gone through a lot of weather change in the last 10 days. Most wheat should be coming out of a water logged state (see photo below). This week will give a a really big change in the way your crop looks.

Water logged wheat. Picture taken by Travis in Madison, FL.

Water logged wheat
Picture taken by Travis in Madison, FL.

Now is the last chance to top dress before jointing (you are really three weeks late). Think about mixing 1,000 lb. of UREA and 1,000 lb. of Ammonium Sulfate per ton. This will make a 35-0-0-12 sulfur. This is a great top dress for any small grain. With the rainfall we have had most of the Nitrogen and sulfur you applied has leached out of the current shallow root zone. It is still there but the roots need to get deeper to reach the N.

If you are concerned and have already put out 95 to 110 lb. of N, then please wait until the soil dries some and the plants send up flag leaves. This will probably be around April 1.

Tissue test your FLAG leaf, do not get the largest in each plant as it will get the first choice of N in the plant and give you a reading on it only. I prefer to get one from the smaller tillers because that is where your yield will be increased. These smaller tillers will dry up if you do not have proper fertilization.

Good Growing!

*Information obtained from 2013 (http//www.caes.uga.edu/publications) Georgia Pest Control Handbook and Intensive Wheat Management in Georgia.  As always follow label and dispose of empties properly.

Wheat/Oat Grower Update

Over the weekend I looked at several seed wheat fields and found most to be in very good shape, both in development and tiller count.

The photo above shows AGS 2040 a new (release 2013) early maturing wheat that was planted two days before Thanksgiving with five or  more tillers per plant. This wheat has had about 70 pounds of N applied so far, and the rest will go out within a few days. At this time no jointing has started (late Feekes 5) but appears to be about five days or less off. Cooler weather will slow this. The first jointing (node) will occur on the largest of the tillers.

Wheat 02-16-2013 015-1

The wheat plant on the right has 3 joints ( Feekes mid- 7) and the small head of wheat is forming, (upper toothpick) the darker green spot just above the white line of the joint. This wheat could be damaged with the 25 degree cold weather this weekend.

As March approaches, growers need to watch for diseases. Please do not apply fungicides to early. Now is the time to apply your last nitrogen and sulfur. Think about mixing 1000 lbs of UREA and 1000 lbs of Ammonium Sulfate per ton. This will make a 35.-0-0-12 sulfur. Great for that last N application.

It is time to think of soybeans – what type of treatment you will require and to order your ULTRA-LATE soybeans, so they can be placed into cold storage until you are ready to plant.

Good Growing!

** Information obtained from 2013 Georgia Pest Control Handbook and Intensive Wheat Management in Georgia.  As always follow label and dispose of empties properly.

Wheat/Oat Grower Update

In south Georgia, the chilly hours from November 12 to February 4 are behind last year, which was a record warm winter. In middle Georgia, some locations have a little higher numbers of hours than in 2012 over the same period. Some colder weather for the remainder of February and early March would be of great benefit to varieties that require a long vernalization requirement. 

ImageThe above table was provided by Jerry Johnson, a UGA wheat breeder. 

Growers need to be thinking about their final N applications soon. Wheat needs to have N applied 10 days prior to jointing to get maximum head length and maximum yields. We have had a few more cold hours than last year but way below normal. Wheat could be two weeks early, like last year, if we continue with the warm weather. 

Good Growing! 

** Information obtained from 2013 Georgia Pest Control Handbook and Intensive Wheat Management in Georgia.  As always follow label and dispose of empties properly.

Wheat Insects Update

David Buntin, professor of entomology at the UGA-Griffin Campus, sent me an email a while back and I thought I would share.

“With the extended warm weather folks should also be checking for aphid (dueto BYD transmission).  If aphids are present or if farmers are going toapply a herbicide to wheat they may consider adding a lambda cyhalothrin insecticide (like Karate Z) or gamma cyhalothrin (Declare) to the tank mix. Other insecticides may reduce the aphids but the cyhalothrin products do abetter job of also suppressing BYD.”

Good Growing!

Wheat/Oat Grower Update

Take time to walk your wheat fields while the wheat is still young and you can count the plants per foot per row. If you find a row that is too thin or too thick flag that row on your drill and correct the seeding rate before you plant next year.

If your wheat is 4 inches (two or more tillers) tall or taller, then you may need to put out your winter weed control.  The weeds have really been growing because of the warm weather and can really hurt your yields. Chemical prices are up this year so please don’t cut out application because of the price, it will pay to control the weeds.

Please do not use 2,4-D at this time I think it hurts wheat yield too much and does not control all weeds.   Chemicals below are very gentle on wheat and give a much broader window of control.

Ryegrass has been growing also. Look at your fields and use the chemical that best suits your growth stage of wheat and ryegrass. PowerFlex is a good choice.

Weed control

Harmony Extra TotalSol: Per label always add surfactant per label.

Express  Plus  MCPA:  Per label always add surfactant per label.  Gives good to excellent control on most winter weeds.

DO NOT USE THIS ON OATS.

POWERFLEX:  Per label gives excellent weed and ryegrass control. Read label for plant back restrictions.

Good growing!

Steve, Lane, Lee, Blake, and Jimmy

** Information obtained from 2012 Georgia Pest Control Handbook and Intensive Wheat Management in Georgia.  As always follow label and dispose of empties properly.**