Wheat Harvest Update

If you have some time, below is a link to a very good article. But if you don’t have the time, the meat of the article on combine settings is below. 

Article: Identification and Control of Fusarium Head Blight (Scab) of Wheat in Georgia

If people ask about how to adjust the combine in a high-scab field:  Research at the Ohio State University showed that adjusting the combine’s fan speed between 1,375 and 1,475 rpms and shutter opening to 90 mm (3.5 inches) resulted in the lowest discounts that would have been received at the elevator due to low test weight, % damaged kernels, and DON in the harvested grain (Salgado et al., 2011; PDF at http://plantpath.osu.edu/sites/plantpath/files/imce/files/Paul/PDIS-01-14-0093-RE.pdf)

Follow the below to help reduce vomitoxin in your wheat harvest.

Harvest Techniques To Reduce Fusarium Infected Kernels

Adjust combine so lightweight, shriveled kernels are also removed with chaff. The goal is to blow the lightweight, diseased kernels out the back of the combine without blowing out too many good kernels. This technique is feasible when the rest of the grain is of good quality. In fields severely affected by leaf diseases, the lower test weight of the grain may make it more difficult to separate normal kernels from Fusarium damaged kernels.

Source for above UGA extension

Good Growing!

** As always follow label and dispose of empties properly.**

Wheat Update

Wheat harvest has started and yields in some fields will be over 80 bushels per acre, others will be below 35. Freeze damage can be found in all fields of early and early mid maturing wheat. I have found damage as high as 15% in some fields that headed early. The true mid maturing wheat that got enough cool hours to make heads missed most of the freeze because the head was not as susceptible when the 28 degree nights came.  Freeze damage can be seen in the amount of bacterial Black Chaff found on the heads. If the head is curved and has black margins on the bran then this could be the result of freeze damage and Black Chaff. Low test weight and shriveled kernels will be found in those heads, yields will be impacted. Last year the freeze damage was to the stems and the wheat lodged very badly.  This year it is the wheat head that has the most damage.

Kudzu Bugs, and stink bugs are in all wheat fields.  Looks as if we are in for a bad year on insects a warm January really allowed the insects to survive. 

Good Growing!

*Follow label on all Pesticides, rinse and dispose of empties properly. Info Georgia Pest Management Handbook 2013 

Wheat Update – Freeze Damage

The below paragraph was taken from Seminole Crop New.

It was a cold March. Here is the info from our Donalsonville Weather station that shows we had an average low of 42.7 degrees F. and the long-term normal is 47 degrees. The average daily low last March was 56.3, so 13 degrees different.  March was cooler than January this year… January average temperature was 57.6 about  3 degrees warmer than the March average temperature.  Go to http://www.georgiaweather.net/ for more info.

The photo below shows freeze damage. This was on early maturing wheat planted at the correct time. Also we have aphids (2nd photo below),  kudzu bugs, and stink bugs in most wheat fields.  Looks as if we are in for a bad year on insects; a warm January really allowed the insects to survive.

Photo 1: Freeze Damage

Photo 1: Freeze Damage

Aphids -04-8-2013

Photo 2: Aphids, mother and babies

Spray your wheat  with a fungicide at the Feekes 10.1 (if label allows) stage and add an insecticide to the tank mix – it will pay off.

Good Growing!

 *Follow label on all Pesticides, rinse and dispose of empties properly. Info Georgia Pest Management Handbook 2013 

Rust in Oats

Ed Harrison, a consultant in Camilla, Ga, found CROWN RUST  in  oats yesterday.   Most of the newer oat varieties have been resistant to rust until this NEW strain came out this year.

This was confirmed by Dr. Ron (Barnett Oat Breeder UF Quincy) when I called him. His said that every commercial line has CROWN Rust this year in his plots.  A new strain of rust has won over the inbred resistance (Nature will overcome).

Check your fields if you find rust in the lower leaves then spray. (Click here to view spray guide)  This rust will get worst as the weather warms up and really hurt your yields.

Good Growing!

*Information obtained from 2013 (http//www.caes.uga.edu/publications) Georgia Pest Control Handbook and Intensive Wheat Management in Georgia.  As always follow label and dispose of empties properly.

Wheat Update

Rust, Stem, Stripe , or Leaf do you have it?  Most newer southern varieties are rust resistant. (See UGA chart)

Now that we have that out-of-the-way, what is in your field?  You could have rust. Please check to see if you have red/brown, yellow, orange or any combination of spores you can rub off onto a white cloth. (call me if you find this on a AGS variety) You need to wait two days after a rain to do this because rain will wash off the spores. Rust is very aggressive when the temperatures are right and must be controlled quickly so do not allow many days to pass before you check your fields.  No spores!…….. Powdery Mildew, look for white to gray powdery fungal growth on leaves and leaf sheaths.  Tip yellowing , purple leaves, and twisting of leaves BYD (it is a virus and fungicides will not control you must put out something to control aphids before you get the virus) see link below on BYD. Check out the wheat you planted against the UGA 2012 chart it will help you in determining what could be in your wheat. Lastly, you could just have cold/frost damaged wheat. We have had the right conditions to have this problem and many fields do.  Yellowing, streaking, tip burn, purple tips and many other conditions are caused by frost/cold damage.  I worry the real damage from the freeze will be when the heavy wheat heads lodge because the stem was weakened but not killed.

I generally find the flag leaf to be the one of the things I want to protect, the other is the wheat head. Leaf Blotch and Glume Blotch must be controlled to make good wheat yields.  Fungicides do not trans-locate well and need to be on the surface they are to protect.  Please wait as long as possible or if you must spray early then plan to spray twice.

Tissue test your FLAG leaf, do not get the largest in each plant as it will get the first choice of N in the plant and give you a reading on it only. I prefer to get one from the smaller tillers because that is where your yield will be increased. These smaller /later tillers will dry-up if you do not have proper fertilization.

Links:BYD ANR-1082Stripe Rust – LSU

Good Growing!

*Information obtained from 2013 (http//www.caes.uga.edu/publications) Georgia Pest Control Handbook and Intensive Wheat Management in Georgia.  As always follow label and dispose of empties properly.

 

Wheat Update

Wheat has gone through a lot of weather change in the last 10 days. Most wheat should be coming out of a water logged state (see photo below). This week will give a a really big change in the way your crop looks.

Water logged wheat. Picture taken by Travis in Madison, FL.

Water logged wheat
Picture taken by Travis in Madison, FL.

Now is the last chance to top dress before jointing (you are really three weeks late). Think about mixing 1,000 lb. of UREA and 1,000 lb. of Ammonium Sulfate per ton. This will make a 35-0-0-12 sulfur. This is a great top dress for any small grain. With the rainfall we have had most of the Nitrogen and sulfur you applied has leached out of the current shallow root zone. It is still there but the roots need to get deeper to reach the N.

If you are concerned and have already put out 95 to 110 lb. of N, then please wait until the soil dries some and the plants send up flag leaves. This will probably be around April 1.

Tissue test your FLAG leaf, do not get the largest in each plant as it will get the first choice of N in the plant and give you a reading on it only. I prefer to get one from the smaller tillers because that is where your yield will be increased. These smaller tillers will dry up if you do not have proper fertilization.

Good Growing!

*Information obtained from 2013 (http//www.caes.uga.edu/publications) Georgia Pest Control Handbook and Intensive Wheat Management in Georgia.  As always follow label and dispose of empties properly.

Wheat/Oat Grower Update

Over the weekend I looked at several seed wheat fields and found most to be in very good shape, both in development and tiller count.

The photo above shows AGS 2040 a new (release 2013) early maturing wheat that was planted two days before Thanksgiving with five or  more tillers per plant. This wheat has had about 70 pounds of N applied so far, and the rest will go out within a few days. At this time no jointing has started (late Feekes 5) but appears to be about five days or less off. Cooler weather will slow this. The first jointing (node) will occur on the largest of the tillers.

Wheat 02-16-2013 015-1

The wheat plant on the right has 3 joints ( Feekes mid- 7) and the small head of wheat is forming, (upper toothpick) the darker green spot just above the white line of the joint. This wheat could be damaged with the 25 degree cold weather this weekend.

As March approaches, growers need to watch for diseases. Please do not apply fungicides to early. Now is the time to apply your last nitrogen and sulfur. Think about mixing 1000 lbs of UREA and 1000 lbs of Ammonium Sulfate per ton. This will make a 35.-0-0-12 sulfur. Great for that last N application.

It is time to think of soybeans – what type of treatment you will require and to order your ULTRA-LATE soybeans, so they can be placed into cold storage until you are ready to plant.

Good Growing!

** Information obtained from 2013 Georgia Pest Control Handbook and Intensive Wheat Management in Georgia.  As always follow label and dispose of empties properly.

Wheat Sheet 2012

Growers are encouraged to use multiple year data for best results in your selections for 2012.

AGS 2035:  #1 South Carolina wheat yield challenge @100.9 bu/acre,  #2 Plains, GA three  year average @ 79.0bu/acre.  #1 commercial line at TIFTON 2012 @ 84.1 bu/acre  Awned, Resistant to stripe and leaf rust, Hessian fly, SBMV, MR to glume blotch,  Powdery Mildew, and BYD. VERY heavy test weight*.

AGS 2026:  # 1 three year Plains, GA with fungicide  @85.4 bu/acre, # 1 Tifton three year @ 80.3 bu/acre  Awnless,Resistant (best) Hessian fly, , Stripe Rust, SBMV, and Leaf Rust. MR to glume blotch, Powdery Mildew, and BYD.  Medium maturing, and heavy test weight.*

AGS 2060:  # 5 @ 102.5 bu/acre Rohwer  Ar  Awned,  Resistant to stripe and leaf rust, Hessian fly,  MR to glume blotch, Powdery Mildew, and BYD. VERY heavy test weight*.  Earliest maturing AGS wheat plant last.

Pioneer 26R10: NEW  91 bu/acre South Carolina 2012 wheat variety challenge Hessian fly resistant, medium maturing, stripe rust and mildew resistant, good test weight, plant early,  great for Plains, GA North

Pioneer 26R20:  # 4 @ 108.2 bu/acre Rohwer  Ar,   84.6 bu/acre South Carolina 2012 wheat variety challenge Hessian fly resistant, medium maturing, stripe rust and mildew resistant, good test weight, plant first,  great for Perry,  GA North

Coker 9700 # 2 Tifton three year @80.2 bu/acre,  Hessian fly resistant, medium maturing,  MR stripe rust , MS to mildew, does best with a fungicide spray, good test weight,

Late Planting

Fleming:   Plant last and harvest first:Fair Hessian fly resistance, early maturing, Stripe rust, Leaf Rust, and Mildew resistant*.  (Plant after 12-01-11, in coastal plain)

**Information from: *State  Small Grain Performance test 2012.