Wheat/Oat Grower Update

Please see correction on timing of FHB spray from Christina Cowger, last update was in error.

Important note from Christina: If scab is your target, you will only profit significantly if you apply fungicide between early flowering and up to 7 days later. Fungicide applications before flowering will give little to no scab control. This is because the scab fungus attacks the heads through the flowering parts (anthers) once they are extruded.

Bottom line: use Propiconazole or Tebuconazole to correct any early problems. Then, if there is medium to high risk of scab, which you can see at the forecasting site www.wheatscab.psu.edu, put out Caramba, Proline, or Prosaro at early flowering or, if it is too wet then, up to 7 days later. This approach should decrease your exposure to FHB while keeping the other diseases in check. I will be sending out FHB update as soon as I prior to wheat flowering.

APHIDS 

Foliar insecticide treatments for aphid control: A well-timed insecticide application of a persistent pyrethroid insecticide such as lambda cyhalothrin (Warrior, Karate, Lambda, Silencer,other(s) will kill aphids and reduce the incidence of BYD and increase yields.

Good Growing!

Information from: Christina Cowger, Small Grains Pathologist USDA-ARS North Carolina State University, Intensive Wheat Management in Georgia and 2015 Georgia Chemical Handbook.

Wheat Update

These photos were taken today (4/19/15) south of Blountstown, Fl.  I have never seen a field so completely covered with rust and septoria. This could happen to your fields if you did not spray on time. At first I thought Wheat Take All, but this is the first I have seen wheat in this field. It was following peanuts. This field has had rain for several days straight.

Diseased  wheat in FlaDiseased wheat fla 04-19-15

You need to spray as late as possible per the label of fungicide used, because most fungicides do not translocate well in the plant. We need to protect the head of wheat and the flag leaf during this time.   If you see rust call me. I have seen very little rust but lots of Septoria, Stagonnospora leaf blotch, Powerdery mildew, BYD and Tan Spot.

Fungicides

Absolute 500 SC, Headline , Stratego, Quilt, Quadris, Folicur+Tilt , or one of many others.  All should be put out at per the label of fungicide used.

Aphids are out , but you need to have 10+ per flag leaf before you treat. Always watch for beneficials. Lady bugs, Aphid lions (lady bug larvae), parasitic wasp, and syrphid fly larvae all eat aphids.

Foliar insecticide treatments for aphid control: A well-timed insecticide application of a persistent pyrethroid insecticide such as lambda cyhalothrin (Warrior, Karate, Lambda, Silencer, others) can reduce the incidence of BYD and increase yields.  Lambda cyhalothrin can only be applied twice to a crop so use another product at heading such as Baythroid XL or Mustang MAX/Respect.  These can be combined with a foliar fungicide application and also will control cereal leaf beetle if it is present.

Always follow all label instructions.

Good Growing!

*Follow label on all Pesticides, rinse and dispose of empties properly. Info Georgia Pest Management Handbook 2015

Wheat Update

If you did not get ¾ of an inch or more of rain in the last week you may need to water. Dig down 2″ and if the soil does not hold shape when balled in your hand, then water. It is best not to water when flowers are visible on more than 25% of wheat heads (FEEKES 10.5+);  just wait until flowers fall off (about 3 days later). You need ¾” to 1” of water (rain or irrigation) every week until 75% of wheat heads in your field are at Soft Dough Stage. Do not over water wheat.

Today, I think wheat (AGS 2035) planted on time is 4-5 days ahead of last year. Most wheat is at Feekes early 10.2 or older. This means the wheat head is visible in the leaf seath. (AGS 2035 planted 11-24-2014 in Seminole county is at Feekes 10.2 to 10.4) You need to spray as late as possible per the label of fungicide used, because most fungicides do not translocate well in the plant. We need to protect the head of wheat and the flag leaf during this time. If you see rust call me. I have seen very little rust but lots of Septoria, Stagonnospora leaf blotch, Powerdery mildew, BYD and Tan Spot.

FungicidesAbsolute 500 SC, Headline, Stratego, Quilt, Quadris, Folicur+Tilt, or one of many others.

All should be put out at per the label of fungicide used.

Aphids are out, but you need to have 10+ per flag leaf before you treat. Always watch for beneficials. Lady bugs, Aphid lions (lady bug larvae), parasitic wasp, and syrphid fly larvae all eat aphids.

Foliar insecticide treatments for aphid control: A well-timed insecticide application of a persistent pyrethroid insecticide such as lambda cyhalothrin (Warrior, Karate, Lambda, Silencer, others) can reduce the incidence of BYD and increase yields.  Lambda cyhalothrin can only be applied twice to a crop so use another product at heading such as Baythroid XL or Mustang MAX/Respect.  These can be combined with a foliar fungicide application and also will control cereal leaf beetle if it is present.

As always, follow all label instructions.

 Good Growing! 

*Follow label on all Pesticides, rinse and dispose of empties properly. Info Georgia Pest Management Handbook 2015

Wheat Update

Most wheat is at Feekes scale 10.1 or older, this is often called the early heading stage. At this growth rate wheat is about 3-5 days behind normal heading date. You need to spray a late as possible per the label of fungicide used, because most fungicides do not translocate well in the plant. We need to protect the head of wheat and the flag leaf during this time. You may want to add an insecticide to help control aphids and stink bugs. The picture below is a stink bug on the head of triticale in an oat field.

Stink bug in oats

 

Fungicides

Headline, Stratego, Quilt, Quadris, Folicur+Tilt, or one of many others.

All should be applied per the label of fungicide used. Most full heading (10.3) should occur before April 1, 2013.

Univeristy of Illinois

Please be sure to visit and support this site, www.georgiaweather.net – it has a lot of good information.

Good Growing!

*Follow label on all Pesticides, rinse and dispose of empties properly. Info Georgia Pest Management Handbook 2014

 

Wheat Condition – Disease, Aphids

Rome recently wrote a good post on his blog about wheat conditions – it had some very good information.

Wheat is jointing well and some early planted early varieties even have a few flag leaves emerging.  Powdery mildew disease is a concern but with warmer temperatures it usually calms down. We are watching for Stripe and Leaf rust now. Here’s an update from Extension Plant Pathologist  Dr. Alfredo Martinez-Espinosa.“Powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis-Syn Erysiphe graminis) infections on wheatfields have been reported and confirmed recently across the state, especiallyon the southwest part of the state. Weather has been conducive for the disease.Powdery mildew tends to diminish as temperatures consistently reach above 75ºFand RH falls below 85%. If powdery mildew progresses up the plant and is foundin upper leaves (flag leaf minus 2) you might consider a fungicide application.”Aphids are still present in wheat fields but we are getting to a point in the season to where I’m not too worried about them. Also, we have lots of beneficial insects working on them pretty well. Decatur County Agent Justin Ballew and I found lots of syrphid fly larvae feeding on aphids yesterday as well as a few lady beetles and their larvae and lots of wasp parasitism by tiny wasps causing aphids to “blow up”.Here’s some wheat with some flag leaves emerging and a head or two.

_DSC3214

Syrphid fly larvae chasing an aphid.

_DSC3149

These aphids have blown up in size and are dead due to being parasitized by wasps.

_DSC3157Lady Beetle and below that the lady beetle larva are good aphid eaters.

_DSC3166_DSC3171Posted by romeethredge on March 14, 2014.

Wheat Update – Freeze Damage

The below paragraph was taken from Seminole Crop New.

It was a cold March. Here is the info from our Donalsonville Weather station that shows we had an average low of 42.7 degrees F. and the long-term normal is 47 degrees. The average daily low last March was 56.3, so 13 degrees different.  March was cooler than January this year… January average temperature was 57.6 about  3 degrees warmer than the March average temperature.  Go to http://www.georgiaweather.net/ for more info.

The photo below shows freeze damage. This was on early maturing wheat planted at the correct time. Also we have aphids (2nd photo below),  kudzu bugs, and stink bugs in most wheat fields.  Looks as if we are in for a bad year on insects; a warm January really allowed the insects to survive.

Photo 1: Freeze Damage

Photo 1: Freeze Damage

Aphids -04-8-2013

Photo 2: Aphids, mother and babies

Spray your wheat  with a fungicide at the Feekes 10.1 (if label allows) stage and add an insecticide to the tank mix – it will pay off.

Good Growing!

 *Follow label on all Pesticides, rinse and dispose of empties properly. Info Georgia Pest Management Handbook 2013 

Wheat Update: watering & fungicides

If you did not get ¾ or more inch of rain in the last week you may need to water.  Dig down 2 inches and if the soil at that depth does not hold shape when balled in your hand, then water.  It is best not to water when flowers are visible on over 25% of wheat heads, just wait until flowers fall off (about 3 days later).  Then ¾  inch rain or irrigation a week until soft dough stage in 75% of wheat heads. Do not over water wheat.

Today, I think on time planted wheat is 14+ days ahead of “NORMAL” years. Most wheat is at Feekes early 10.1 or older this means the wheat head is visible in the leaf seath. ( AGS 2035 planted 11-26-2011 in Seminole county is at Feekes10.5.3 to 10.5.4  flowering is over)  You need to spray as late as possible per the label of fungicide used, because most fungicides do not translocate well in the plant.  We need to protect the head of wheat and the flag leaf during this time.   If you see rust call me.

Fungicides:Headline , Stratego, Quilt, Quadris, Folicur,   Tilt , or one of many others. All should be put out at  per the label of fungicide used.

Aphids are out , but you need to have 10+ per flag leaf before you treat. Always watch for beneficials.  Lady bugs, Aphid lions (lady bug larvae), parasitic wasp, and syrphid fly larvae all eat aphids.

Foliar insecticide treatments for aphid control: A well-timed insecticide application of a persistent pyrethroid insecticide such as lambda cyhalothrin (Warrior, Karate, Lambda, Silencer, others) can reduce the incidence of BYD and increase yields.  Lambda cyhalothrin can only be applied twice to a crop so use another product at heading such as Baythroid XL or Mustang MAX/Respect.  These can be combined with a foliar fungicide application and also will control cereal leaf beetle if it is present.  Always follow all label instructions.

Good Growing!

 *Follow label on all Pesticides, rinse and dispose of empties properly. Info Georgia Pest Management Handbook 2012

Wheat Update: insect control

Most wheat and oats could use rain or irrigation now. Small grain planted on time  from Griffin Ga., south is entering the Feekes 10.1 stage or later (see Chart)  wheat head just poking through leaf sheath.  With wheat still over $6.00 on the CBOT it will pay to use one of the mixtures like Quilt, Stratego, Twinline, Propicanazole+Tebuconazole, or Headline should be used.  Add Aphid control if needed. (see Insect Control here).

You need to apply this spray between Feekes 10.3 and 10.5 for best head disease control.

Dr Steve Harrison, wheat breeder at LSU has an update (click here to view) that gives the best explanation I have seen on why we have such ragged wheat this year. Please take time to read this it will help you in planning you wheat planting this Fall. Land Grant Wheat breeders (UGA, LSU, NCS, UF, and UArk) have several hundred varieties that are tested each year for our areas climate and disease pressure.  They really need to be thanked for all they do for the Southern Farmer.

*Information obtained from 2012(http//www.caes.uga.edu/publications) Georgia Pest Control Handbook and Intensive Wheat Management in Georgia.  As always follow label and dispose of empties properly.

Wheat Update: powdery mildew, leaf blotch & aphids

Powdery mildew, Leaf blotch and Aphids are causing problems on wheat this week.. The 80 degree days and nights around 58 degrees will really allow diseases to infect this wheat crop.

The photo above shows mildew and possible leaf blotch (Morris Henry). It is a good example of what you could see in your fields this week. Also you can see the effects of early heading caused by the extremely warm weather after enough cold hours have been acquired by the wheat crop.  Propiconazole or Tebuconazole at the low rate should cure your mildew and leaf blotch problems.  Do not spray your primary fungicide until the wheat heads, around Feekes 10.4 is best.

The aphid photo (above) is a good example of what you found last week in your fields and shows a colony growing and getting ready to fly to another area in your field spreading Barley Yellow Dwarf which can hurt your yield. A lambda insecticide will cure that problem.

Click here for the UGA charts on pesticide and fungicide sprays and rates.

Good Growing!

Information obtained from 2012(http//www.caes.uga.edu/publications) Georgia Pest Control Handbook and Intensive Wheat Management in Georgia.  As always follow label and dispose of empties properly.