Fusarim Head Blight Management

Plantation Seed

Wheat/Oat Grower update

03-22-2017

A spray at Wheat Flowering will be one of the most important tools a wheat grower can use in 2017. Wheat should be  flowering from 03-25-17 to 04-10-17. Wheat gets FHB or SCAB during this flowering time. 

Those of you who went to the Small Grain Soybean Expo in Perry today could have heard from Christina Cowger, Small Grains Pathologist USDA-ARS on this problem that has cut our yields in half and ruined the quality of our wheat for the last two years. Rainfall or irrigation will increase infection if it occurs during the 5-6 days of Flowering.  Wheat growers MUST change their fungicides to control FHB.

Please look at the chart below on fungicides and CHOOSE WISELY for FHB control. Below you will find what we have been doing wrong in the past years to control FHB.

FHB spray

Strobilurins can actually increase vomitoxin (DON) relative to an unsprayed check.  This bad effect of increasing DON gets worse the closer you get to flowering.  So it’s best not to apply a strobilurin-containing fungicide after flag leaf. That goes for pure strobilurins and also strobilurin-triazole. Some triazoles are more effective than others at reducing FHB kernel damage and vomitoxin.  The best ones are Caramba, Proline, and Prosaro. Tilt and Folicur do some good, but not enough in a bad scab year.

Bottom line: use Propiconazole or Tebuconazole to correct any early problems.  When your wheat normally flowers (see photo below) and  up to 5 days after flowering put out Caramba, Proline, or Prosaro. This approach should decrease your exposure to FHB while keeping the other diseases in check.

FHB When to spray

 To View the FULL Powerpoint Presentation from Christina Cowger, Click the GA-FL Expo Link Below

 

GA-FL Expo_Feb 2017

 

Good Growing

Blake, Ethan, Lane, Lee, and Jimmy

 

Information from: Christina Cowger, Small Grains Pathologist USDA-ARS North Carolina State University and Intensive Wheat Management in Georgia.

 

Go To http://www.plantationseedupdate.com

 FOR MORE INFORMATION AND CLICK FOLLOW AND YOU WILL GET ALL UPDATES

AGS Wheat Varieties

Plantation Seed Wheat Sheet 2016

 

Please plant which ever wheat you choose at the correct planting time for your area. Just like Cotton and Corn varieties, each Wheat variety has characteristics that apply just to that wheat.

 

AGS 2024: #1 at Blackville South Carolina 2016 OVT @ 129.9 bu./acre.  # 1 at Tifton, Georgia 2016 OVT of released varieties @ 106.3 bu./acre Awned, Medium maturing, and Heavy Test Weight*. Resistant to Stripe Rust, SBMV, Leaf Rust, and Powdery Mildew. MR to glume blotch, Hessian fly, and BYD. 

 

AGS 2038: #1 at Union Co. NC 2016 OVT @ 75.2 bu./acre, #2 at Blackville, SC  2016 OVT @ 129 bu./acre.  Awned, Medium-Late maturing, and Heavy Test Weight*. Resistant to stripe and leaf rust, Powdery Mildew, and SBMV. MR to Hessian fly, glume blotch, and BYD.

 

AGS 2033: #2 at Union Co. NC 2016 OVT @ 67.4 bu./acre, #5 at Blackville SC @ 120.1 bu./acre Blackville SC 2016 OVT of released varieties. Awned, Medium maturing, and Heavy Test Weight*. Resistant to stripe rust, leaf rust, Hessian fly, SBMV, MR to glume blotch, Powdery Mildew, and BYD

 

AGS 2035: #5 at Blackville SC 2016 OVT @120.1 bu./acre of released varieties. Awned, Medium maturing, and Heavy Test Weight*. Resistant to stripe rust, leaf rust, Hessian fly, SBMV, MR to glume blotch, Powdery Mildew, and BYD

 

AGS 3000: #4 at Tifton GA @ 98.0 bu./acre of released varieties. MR to FHB (scab) the first of the AGS varieties to have FHB resistance. Resistant to Hessian fly, Stripe Rust, SBMV, and Leaf Rust. MR to glume blotch, Powdery Mildew, BYD, and heavy test weight.  VERY EARLY (Treat like Fleming. Plant late, Harvest first)

 

Pioneer 26R94: #4 at Plains Georgia @ 76.1 bu./acre 3-year average of released varieties. Awned, Medium/early maturing, and Good Test Weight*. Resistant to Hessian fly, stripe rust and mildew. Great Pioneer wheat for the SOUTH.

 

AGS 2040: #5 at Tifton @ 95.6 bu./acre of released varieties. Awned, Early maturing, and Very Heavy Test Weight*. Resistant to Stripe Rust, SBMV, and Leaf Rust. MR to glume blotch, Powdery Mildew, Hessian Fly and BYD.

 

Pioneer 26R41: #6 at Blackville SC @ 117.1 bu./acre released varieties.    

Awned, Medium maturing, and Good Test Weight*. Resistant to Hessian Fly, stripe rust and mildew. Plant first, great for Perry, Ga. North.

 

AGS GrazeALL: This variety is a new wheat designed for grazing and cover crop use. It is Resistant to Hessian Fly and most diseases

  Call Lane 800-543-4164, Lane or Blake 229-734-5466, or Jimmy 229-881-2700        for more info.  *Information from: State Small Grain OVT Performance test 2016.

FHB SPRAY UPDATE

PLANTATION SEED

FHB SPRAY UPDATE

04-11-16

In the link below, you will find a photo of wheat flowering and a slide of best time to spray for FHB control.

FHB Spray best time

5-7 days after your wheat strarts flowering, (this should occur around 04-12 to 04-20) put out Caramba, Proline, or Prosaro. (make sure your dealer has product in stock for you) This approach should decrease your exposure to FHB (not complete control, to get better you will need a wheat with the FHB gene and apply the fungicide) while keeping the other diseases in check.

 

Good Growing

Blake, Lane, Lee, Brett, and Jimmy

 

 *Follow label on all Pesticides, rinse, and dispose of empties properly. Info Georgia Pest Management Handbook 2016, USDA Data, and Christina Cowger.

Wheat/Oat Grower Update

Please see correction on timing of FHB spray from Christina Cowger, last update was in error.

Important note from Christina: If scab is your target, you will only profit significantly if you apply fungicide between early flowering and up to 7 days later. Fungicide applications before flowering will give little to no scab control. This is because the scab fungus attacks the heads through the flowering parts (anthers) once they are extruded.

Bottom line: use Propiconazole or Tebuconazole to correct any early problems. Then, if there is medium to high risk of scab, which you can see at the forecasting site www.wheatscab.psu.edu, put out Caramba, Proline, or Prosaro at early flowering or, if it is too wet then, up to 7 days later. This approach should decrease your exposure to FHB while keeping the other diseases in check. I will be sending out FHB update as soon as I prior to wheat flowering.

APHIDS 

Foliar insecticide treatments for aphid control: A well-timed insecticide application of a persistent pyrethroid insecticide such as lambda cyhalothrin (Warrior, Karate, Lambda, Silencer,other(s) will kill aphids and reduce the incidence of BYD and increase yields.

Good Growing!

Information from: Christina Cowger, Small Grains Pathologist USDA-ARS North Carolina State University, Intensive Wheat Management in Georgia and 2015 Georgia Chemical Handbook.

Wheat Harvest Update

If you have some time, below is a link to a very good article. But if you don’t have the time, the meat of the article on combine settings is below. 

Article: Identification and Control of Fusarium Head Blight (Scab) of Wheat in Georgia

If people ask about how to adjust the combine in a high-scab field:  Research at the Ohio State University showed that adjusting the combine’s fan speed between 1,375 and 1,475 rpms and shutter opening to 90 mm (3.5 inches) resulted in the lowest discounts that would have been received at the elevator due to low test weight, % damaged kernels, and DON in the harvested grain (Salgado et al., 2011; PDF at http://plantpath.osu.edu/sites/plantpath/files/imce/files/Paul/PDIS-01-14-0093-RE.pdf)

Follow the below to help reduce vomitoxin in your wheat harvest.

Harvest Techniques To Reduce Fusarium Infected Kernels

Adjust combine so lightweight, shriveled kernels are also removed with chaff. The goal is to blow the lightweight, diseased kernels out the back of the combine without blowing out too many good kernels. This technique is feasible when the rest of the grain is of good quality. In fields severely affected by leaf diseases, the lower test weight of the grain may make it more difficult to separate normal kernels from Fusarium damaged kernels.

Source for above UGA extension

Good Growing!

** As always follow label and dispose of empties properly.**

Wheat Update

These photos were taken today (4/19/15) south of Blountstown, Fl.  I have never seen a field so completely covered with rust and septoria. This could happen to your fields if you did not spray on time. At first I thought Wheat Take All, but this is the first I have seen wheat in this field. It was following peanuts. This field has had rain for several days straight.

Diseased  wheat in FlaDiseased wheat fla 04-19-15

You need to spray as late as possible per the label of fungicide used, because most fungicides do not translocate well in the plant. We need to protect the head of wheat and the flag leaf during this time.   If you see rust call me. I have seen very little rust but lots of Septoria, Stagonnospora leaf blotch, Powerdery mildew, BYD and Tan Spot.

Fungicides

Absolute 500 SC, Headline , Stratego, Quilt, Quadris, Folicur+Tilt , or one of many others.  All should be put out at per the label of fungicide used.

Aphids are out , but you need to have 10+ per flag leaf before you treat. Always watch for beneficials. Lady bugs, Aphid lions (lady bug larvae), parasitic wasp, and syrphid fly larvae all eat aphids.

Foliar insecticide treatments for aphid control: A well-timed insecticide application of a persistent pyrethroid insecticide such as lambda cyhalothrin (Warrior, Karate, Lambda, Silencer, others) can reduce the incidence of BYD and increase yields.  Lambda cyhalothrin can only be applied twice to a crop so use another product at heading such as Baythroid XL or Mustang MAX/Respect.  These can be combined with a foliar fungicide application and also will control cereal leaf beetle if it is present.

Always follow all label instructions.

Good Growing!

*Follow label on all Pesticides, rinse and dispose of empties properly. Info Georgia Pest Management Handbook 2015

Wheat Update

If you did not get ¾ of an inch or more of rain in the last week you may need to water. Dig down 2″ and if the soil does not hold shape when balled in your hand, then water. It is best not to water when flowers are visible on more than 25% of wheat heads (FEEKES 10.5+);  just wait until flowers fall off (about 3 days later). You need ¾” to 1” of water (rain or irrigation) every week until 75% of wheat heads in your field are at Soft Dough Stage. Do not over water wheat.

Today, I think wheat (AGS 2035) planted on time is 4-5 days ahead of last year. Most wheat is at Feekes early 10.2 or older. This means the wheat head is visible in the leaf seath. (AGS 2035 planted 11-24-2014 in Seminole county is at Feekes 10.2 to 10.4) You need to spray as late as possible per the label of fungicide used, because most fungicides do not translocate well in the plant. We need to protect the head of wheat and the flag leaf during this time. If you see rust call me. I have seen very little rust but lots of Septoria, Stagonnospora leaf blotch, Powerdery mildew, BYD and Tan Spot.

FungicidesAbsolute 500 SC, Headline, Stratego, Quilt, Quadris, Folicur+Tilt, or one of many others.

All should be put out at per the label of fungicide used.

Aphids are out, but you need to have 10+ per flag leaf before you treat. Always watch for beneficials. Lady bugs, Aphid lions (lady bug larvae), parasitic wasp, and syrphid fly larvae all eat aphids.

Foliar insecticide treatments for aphid control: A well-timed insecticide application of a persistent pyrethroid insecticide such as lambda cyhalothrin (Warrior, Karate, Lambda, Silencer, others) can reduce the incidence of BYD and increase yields.  Lambda cyhalothrin can only be applied twice to a crop so use another product at heading such as Baythroid XL or Mustang MAX/Respect.  These can be combined with a foliar fungicide application and also will control cereal leaf beetle if it is present.

As always, follow all label instructions.

 Good Growing! 

*Follow label on all Pesticides, rinse and dispose of empties properly. Info Georgia Pest Management Handbook 2015

Rust, Stem, Stripe , or Leaf. Do you have it?

Most new southern varieties are Rust resistant.

Now we have that out of the way – what is in your field?

Compare the wheat you planted against the UGA 2014 wheat chart. This resource will help you in determining what could be in your wheat.

Rust. Please check using a white cloth to see if you can rub off any spores. The colors to look for are red/brown, yellow, orange, or any combination. (See LSU chart below.) Wait two days after a rain to do this as rain will wash off the spores. Rust is very aggressive when the temperatures are right and must be controlled quickly. Do not allow many days to pass before you check your fields. Call me if you find Rust on a AGS variety. 

Stripe Rust, LSU

Stripe Rust, vis LSU

Powdery Mildew and BYD (Barley Yellow Dwarf). Look for white to gray powdery fungal growth on leaves and leaf sheaths. Tip yellowing, purple leaves, and/or twisting of leaves are symptoms of BYD, which is a virus, and fungicides will not control it. You must put something out to control aphids before you get the virus. See LSU info on BYD below.

BYD (Barley Yellow Dwarf, LSU)

BYD (Barley Yellow Dwarf)

Cold/Frost Damage. You could just have cold/frost damaged wheat. The conditions have been right cold-frost damage, and some early planted field have it.  Yellowing, streaking, tip burn,  and purple tips are caused by frost/cold damage.

Manganese Deficiency. Manganese is another problem in fields with HIGH Ph. The photo is of a confirmed manganese deficient field.

Manganese Deficient field.

Manganese Deficient field.

I generally find the flag leaf to be the one of the things I want to protect, along with the wheat head. Leaf Blotch, Fusarium, and Glume Blotch must be controlled to have good wheat yields. Fungicides do not trans-locate well and need to be on the surface they are to protect. Please wait as long as possible or if you must spray early then plan to spray twice.

Tissue test your flag leaf. Do not get the largest tiller in each plant, as it will get the first choice of N and give you a skewed reading. I prefer to ample from one of the smaller tillers because that is where your yield will be increased. These smaller /later tillers will dry-up if you do not have proper fertilization.

Good Growing!

*Information obtained from 2015 Georgia Pest Control Handbook (http//www.caes.uga.edu/publications) , Intensive Wheat Management in Georgia, and LSU. As always, follow label and dispose of empties properly.

Wheat/Oat Update

If your wheat/oats are 4 inches (three or more tillers) tall or taller then you may need to put out your winter weed control. The weeds have really been growing because of the warm weather, and also can really hurt your yields. Chemical prices are up this year so please don’t cut out application because of the price, it will pay to control the weeds.

Take time to walk your wheat fields while the wheat is still young and you can count the plants per foot of row. If you find a row that is too thin or too thick flag that row on your drill and correct the seeding rate before you plant next year. A count of 18-20 plants per foot (7-8 inch row) is great, 25-30 is way too thick.

Weed Control
(See Small Grains 2014 from UGA)

Harmony Extra SC, per label always add surfactant per label.

Express Plus MCPA, per label always add surfactant per label. Gives good to excellent control on most winter weeds. DO NOT USE THIS ON OATS.

POWERFLEX and others, per label gives excellent weed and ryegrass control. Read label for plant back restrictions.

Good Growing!

** Information obtained from 2014 Georgia Pest Control Handbook and Intensive Wheat Management in Georgia. As always follow label and dispose of empties properly.

Wheat Update

Most wheat is at Feekes scale 10.1 or older, this is often called the early heading stage. At this growth rate wheat is about 3-5 days behind normal heading date. You need to spray a late as possible per the label of fungicide used, because most fungicides do not translocate well in the plant. We need to protect the head of wheat and the flag leaf during this time. You may want to add an insecticide to help control aphids and stink bugs. The picture below is a stink bug on the head of triticale in an oat field.

Stink bug in oats

 

Fungicides

Headline, Stratego, Quilt, Quadris, Folicur+Tilt, or one of many others.

All should be applied per the label of fungicide used. Most full heading (10.3) should occur before April 1, 2013.

Univeristy of Illinois

Please be sure to visit and support this site, www.georgiaweather.net – it has a lot of good information.

Good Growing!

*Follow label on all Pesticides, rinse and dispose of empties properly. Info Georgia Pest Management Handbook 2014