Wheat/Oat Grower Update

Please see correction on timing of FHB spray from Christina Cowger, last update was in error.

Important note from Christina: If scab is your target, you will only profit significantly if you apply fungicide between early flowering and up to 7 days later. Fungicide applications before flowering will give little to no scab control. This is because the scab fungus attacks the heads through the flowering parts (anthers) once they are extruded.

Bottom line: use Propiconazole or Tebuconazole to correct any early problems. Then, if there is medium to high risk of scab, which you can see at the forecasting site www.wheatscab.psu.edu, put out Caramba, Proline, or Prosaro at early flowering or, if it is too wet then, up to 7 days later. This approach should decrease your exposure to FHB while keeping the other diseases in check. I will be sending out FHB update as soon as I prior to wheat flowering.

APHIDS 

Foliar insecticide treatments for aphid control: A well-timed insecticide application of a persistent pyrethroid insecticide such as lambda cyhalothrin (Warrior, Karate, Lambda, Silencer,other(s) will kill aphids and reduce the incidence of BYD and increase yields.

Good Growing!

Information from: Christina Cowger, Small Grains Pathologist USDA-ARS North Carolina State University, Intensive Wheat Management in Georgia and 2015 Georgia Chemical Handbook.

Wheat Feekes

Most wheat is at a Feekes scale of 8.0 or older; this is often called the mid jointing stage. At this growth rate wheat is about five to seven days ahead of normal heading date. You need to spray as late as possible per the label of fungicide used, because most fungicides do not translocate well in the plant. Additionally, during this time be sure to protect the head of wheat Feekes 10.3 and the flag leaf. You may want to add insecticide to help control aphids and stink bugs.

FUNGICIDES     

Headline , Stratego, Quilt, Quadris, Folicur+Tilt , or one of many others.

All should be put out per the label of fungicide used. Most full heading (10.5) should occur before April 17, 2015.

Univeristy of Illinois

Please make use and support the following site, as it has a lot of good information: http://www.georgiaweather.net/

Good Growing!

 *Follow label on all Pesticides, rinse and dispose of empties properly. Info Georgia Pest Management Handbook 2015

Wheat/Oat update

Most wheat/oats are 4 inches (three or more tillers) tall or taller and you need to put out your winter weed control. I really prefer by ground but, it is wet. If you put out by air PLEASE try to use 3-5 gal per acre, for coverage down in the canopy. Edges can really be a problem and windy days cannot give you coverage you need.

Weed Control
Harmony Extra SC plus MCPA – per label, always add surfactant per label.

Express Plus MCPA – per label, always add surfactant per label. Gives good to excellent control on most winter weeds. DO NOT USE THIS ON OATS.

POWERFLEX and Others – per label, gives excellent weed and ryegrass control. Read label for plant back restrictions.

Good Growing!

** Information obtained from 2014 Georgia Pest Control Handbook and Intensive Wheat Management in Georgia. As always follow label and dispose of empties properly.

High Yield Wheat Management

  1. Collect samples for soil testing. Add lime, P, K, minor, and micro elements as called for by soil test interpretations. Use yield of 80 bu/acre on lab sheet. Deep till, then prepare a good seed bed prior to seeding, keep field traffic to a minimum at this time. Do not plant on a fluffy seed bed. No-til will work if drill is set properly and the ground has been deep tilled in the spring, a deep fall tillage is best. Paratill or Terra-Max can be used with very little disturbance to the surface residue for a fall tillage.
  1. Plant at a rate of 1,350,000 to 1,500,000 seed per acre (a wheat with 12,500 seed per pound will be 120 pounds of seed per acre the 1,500,000 seeding rate) or 32 to 44 seeds/sq. ft. or 18 to 28 seed/ft. of row in 7 to 8-inch row spacing or 8 to 14 seeds/ft. of row in 4-inch rows. Best planting depth is ¾ to less than 1.5 inches deep. PLEASE TREAT YOUR PLANTING SEED, THIS SHOULD GIVE YOU OVER 90% GERM AND A MUCH BETTER STAND. Insecticide plus funcicide treated seed are best (even if you are planting a fly resistance variety) or a timley fall spray for the control aphids which vector barley yellow dwarf.
  1. Apply for the crop year a total of 95 to 135 lb N. per acre plus a total of 30 lbs of sulfur per acre. Three applications is the best but less will work, 25 to 45 lbs N/acre at planting (behind cotton or corn 40 to 45 lbs of N), 40 to 60 lbs/acre 15 to 30 days prior to jointing (1-15- to 2-10-) , and 20 to 30 lbs/acre at first joint stage (3-01- to 3-20-). This is for following peanuts, high residue crops may require more nitrogen. Cotton needs be considered a high residue crop. Some varities need less Nitrogen to make the same yields please do not over apply N. 
  1. Use a Spring fungicide on all varieties. A spray of approved fungicide on the last day of application (at full heading or per label) is most important to help control glume blotch. Glume blotch hurts yields on the wheat heads, most funcicides do not translocate very well.
  1. Know the weed history of the site and identify weeds as soon as possible. On all seed fields you must use herbicides to control such weeds as wild radish, mustard, turnips, wild onion, garlic, and primrose. Several good chemicals will help control ryegrass, if it is a problem. All ryegrass chemicals work best if ryegrass has two or less (pinning) tillers, this could be in mid December on 11-15- planted wheat or (21-28 days after planting).

Good Growing

Soybean Grower Update

A good fungicide has proven to give a yield increase of 6-8 bu per acre over non-treated soybeans in university test. One spray per season is usally enough. To control velvetbean caterpillar and make loopers and stink bugs less of a pest add Dimlin. This year appears to be a very bad stink bug/Kudzu bug year. Look close at your fields cotton, peanut, and soybean especially if they are close to a harvested corn field because there has been several generations in your corn already. Soybeans planted in early-mid June are now in R3. ( R-3 = Pods at least 3/16 inch on the fourth node from top of plant ) You lose some effectiveness if you apply too early. If you have stink bugs think about putting in some pesticide. Watch for Kudzu bugs I have found them in every field.   For Information go to : http://www.kudzubug.org/grower.html

Good fungicide**

Plus

   Dimlin + 1.2 lbs of solubor per acre

Plus

Acephate (Orthene), Karate , Brigade , etc.

**Pesticide information obtained from Georgia Pest Control Handbook @ http://www.ent.uga.edu/pmh/.    

              

As always follow label and dispose of empties properly.

Good Growing!

 

 

Yellow Wheat – Leachable Nutrients

Good advice from NCState and Randy Weisz.

To Folks With Small Grain Interests
Fr Randy Weisz – Small Grains Specialist @ NCSU

Areas of yellowing wheat are showing up in fields across North Carolina… from the Piedmont to the Tidewater. With all the rain we’ve had it is likely that most of these problems are related to a deficiency in leachable nutrients with S being the most likely culprit. K and N may also be suspects! A sulfur problem will usually result in the upper younger leaves turning yellow in contrast to a N problem that results in yellow lower – older leaves.

Should remedial fertilizer applications be made now? There is probably no 100% correct answer to that question. The closer we get to heading, the less likely fertilizer applications are to result in yield benefits. However, if the crop is suffering from nutrient deficiencies, and is somewhere between early jointing and early boot stage, it seems logical and preferable to do something to green it back up!

What options are there? A diagnostic tissue sample from the yellow and green areas is always a good idea! Most of the phone calls I’ve had so far have been S problems, and the most common prescription has been granular ammonium sulfate. Other granular options are possible as well for turning a S problem around. If the problem is related to a micronutrient, a tissue test will help to determine that.

Remember that liquid fertilizers such as UAN or 24S applied after jointing can burn the leaves and developing grain head inside the stem. For that reason these forms of liquid N or S are generally not applied at this growth stage. Tank-mixing UAN or 24S liquid fertilizers with fungicides and/or insecticides can in some cases make this burn worse. So, dry fertilizer is the safest option.

Wheat Condition – Disease, Aphids

Rome recently wrote a good post on his blog about wheat conditions – it had some very good information.

Wheat is jointing well and some early planted early varieties even have a few flag leaves emerging.  Powdery mildew disease is a concern but with warmer temperatures it usually calms down. We are watching for Stripe and Leaf rust now. Here’s an update from Extension Plant Pathologist  Dr. Alfredo Martinez-Espinosa.“Powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis-Syn Erysiphe graminis) infections on wheatfields have been reported and confirmed recently across the state, especiallyon the southwest part of the state. Weather has been conducive for the disease.Powdery mildew tends to diminish as temperatures consistently reach above 75ºFand RH falls below 85%. If powdery mildew progresses up the plant and is foundin upper leaves (flag leaf minus 2) you might consider a fungicide application.”Aphids are still present in wheat fields but we are getting to a point in the season to where I’m not too worried about them. Also, we have lots of beneficial insects working on them pretty well. Decatur County Agent Justin Ballew and I found lots of syrphid fly larvae feeding on aphids yesterday as well as a few lady beetles and their larvae and lots of wasp parasitism by tiny wasps causing aphids to “blow up”.Here’s some wheat with some flag leaves emerging and a head or two.

_DSC3214

Syrphid fly larvae chasing an aphid.

_DSC3149

These aphids have blown up in size and are dead due to being parasitized by wasps.

_DSC3157Lady Beetle and below that the lady beetle larva are good aphid eaters.

_DSC3166_DSC3171Posted by romeethredge on March 14, 2014.

Wheat/Oat Grower Update

Please do not use 2,4-D at this time I think it hurts wheat yield too much and does not control all weeds.  Chemicals below are very gentle on wheat and give a much broader window of control.

Link on weeds: http://www.ent.uga.edu/pmh/

Weed control

Harmony Extra TotalSol   Per label Always add surfactant per label.    

Express  Plus  MCPA.  Per label Always add surfactant per label.  Gives good to excellent control on most winter weeds.  DO NOT USE THIS ON OATS.

POWERFLEX  Per Label gives excellent weed and ryegrass control. Read label for plant back restrictions.

Wheat has gone through a lot of weather change in the last 10 days. Most wheat should be coming out of a frozen/waterlogged state. I have not seen any damage to the growing point on any wheat planted on time. This week will give a really big change in the way your crop looks if it is warm. You want to have by 02-07-2014 all your nitrogen out unless you plan to put 15-20 pounds through the system after a flag leaf tissue test. The total amount to help prevent lodging; sandy fields up to 120 pounds, stiff dirt up to 110 pounds, please add sulfur.

Think about mixing 1000 pounds of UREA and 1000 pounds of Ammonium Sulfate per ton. This will make a 35-0-0-12 sulfur.  This is a great top dress for any small grain. 

Lastly, take time to walk your wheat fields while the wheat is still young and you can count the plants per foot of row. If you find a row that is too thin or too thick flag that row on your drill and correct the seeding rate before you plant next year.

Good Growing!

** Information obtained from 2014 Georgia Pest Control Handbook and Intensive Wheat Management in Georgia.  As always follow label and dispose of empties properly.**