Wheat Update

If you did not get ¾ of an inch or more of rain in the last week you may need to water. Dig down 2″ and if the soil does not hold shape when balled in your hand, then water. It is best not to water when flowers are visible on more than 25% of wheat heads (FEEKES 10.5+);  just wait until flowers fall off (about 3 days later). You need ¾” to 1” of water (rain or irrigation) every week until 75% of wheat heads in your field are at Soft Dough Stage. Do not over water wheat.

Today, I think wheat (AGS 2035) planted on time is 4-5 days ahead of last year. Most wheat is at Feekes early 10.2 or older. This means the wheat head is visible in the leaf seath. (AGS 2035 planted 11-24-2014 in Seminole county is at Feekes 10.2 to 10.4) You need to spray as late as possible per the label of fungicide used, because most fungicides do not translocate well in the plant. We need to protect the head of wheat and the flag leaf during this time. If you see rust call me. I have seen very little rust but lots of Septoria, Stagonnospora leaf blotch, Powerdery mildew, BYD and Tan Spot.

FungicidesAbsolute 500 SC, Headline, Stratego, Quilt, Quadris, Folicur+Tilt, or one of many others.

All should be put out at per the label of fungicide used.

Aphids are out, but you need to have 10+ per flag leaf before you treat. Always watch for beneficials. Lady bugs, Aphid lions (lady bug larvae), parasitic wasp, and syrphid fly larvae all eat aphids.

Foliar insecticide treatments for aphid control: A well-timed insecticide application of a persistent pyrethroid insecticide such as lambda cyhalothrin (Warrior, Karate, Lambda, Silencer, others) can reduce the incidence of BYD and increase yields.  Lambda cyhalothrin can only be applied twice to a crop so use another product at heading such as Baythroid XL or Mustang MAX/Respect.  These can be combined with a foliar fungicide application and also will control cereal leaf beetle if it is present.

As always, follow all label instructions.

 Good Growing! 

*Follow label on all Pesticides, rinse and dispose of empties properly. Info Georgia Pest Management Handbook 2015

Wheat Feekes

Most wheat is at a Feekes scale of 8.0 or older; this is often called the mid jointing stage. At this growth rate wheat is about five to seven days ahead of normal heading date. You need to spray as late as possible per the label of fungicide used, because most fungicides do not translocate well in the plant. Additionally, during this time be sure to protect the head of wheat Feekes 10.3 and the flag leaf. You may want to add insecticide to help control aphids and stink bugs.

FUNGICIDES     

Headline , Stratego, Quilt, Quadris, Folicur+Tilt , or one of many others.

All should be put out per the label of fungicide used. Most full heading (10.5) should occur before April 17, 2015.

Univeristy of Illinois

Please make use and support the following site, as it has a lot of good information: http://www.georgiaweather.net/

Good Growing!

 *Follow label on all Pesticides, rinse and dispose of empties properly. Info Georgia Pest Management Handbook 2015

Rust, Stem, Stripe , or Leaf. Do you have it?

Most new southern varieties are Rust resistant.

Now we have that out of the way – what is in your field?

Compare the wheat you planted against the UGA 2014 wheat chart. This resource will help you in determining what could be in your wheat.

Rust. Please check using a white cloth to see if you can rub off any spores. The colors to look for are red/brown, yellow, orange, or any combination. (See LSU chart below.) Wait two days after a rain to do this as rain will wash off the spores. Rust is very aggressive when the temperatures are right and must be controlled quickly. Do not allow many days to pass before you check your fields. Call me if you find Rust on a AGS variety. 

Stripe Rust, LSU

Stripe Rust, vis LSU

Powdery Mildew and BYD (Barley Yellow Dwarf). Look for white to gray powdery fungal growth on leaves and leaf sheaths. Tip yellowing, purple leaves, and/or twisting of leaves are symptoms of BYD, which is a virus, and fungicides will not control it. You must put something out to control aphids before you get the virus. See LSU info on BYD below.

BYD (Barley Yellow Dwarf, LSU)

BYD (Barley Yellow Dwarf)

Cold/Frost Damage. You could just have cold/frost damaged wheat. The conditions have been right cold-frost damage, and some early planted field have it.  Yellowing, streaking, tip burn,  and purple tips are caused by frost/cold damage.

Manganese Deficiency. Manganese is another problem in fields with HIGH Ph. The photo is of a confirmed manganese deficient field.

Manganese Deficient field.

Manganese Deficient field.

I generally find the flag leaf to be the one of the things I want to protect, along with the wheat head. Leaf Blotch, Fusarium, and Glume Blotch must be controlled to have good wheat yields. Fungicides do not trans-locate well and need to be on the surface they are to protect. Please wait as long as possible or if you must spray early then plan to spray twice.

Tissue test your flag leaf. Do not get the largest tiller in each plant, as it will get the first choice of N and give you a skewed reading. I prefer to ample from one of the smaller tillers because that is where your yield will be increased. These smaller /later tillers will dry-up if you do not have proper fertilization.

Good Growing!

*Information obtained from 2015 Georgia Pest Control Handbook (http//www.caes.uga.edu/publications) , Intensive Wheat Management in Georgia, and LSU. As always, follow label and dispose of empties properly.

Wheat/Oat update

Most wheat/oats are 4 inches (three or more tillers) tall or taller and you need to put out your winter weed control. I really prefer by ground but, it is wet. If you put out by air PLEASE try to use 3-5 gal per acre, for coverage down in the canopy. Edges can really be a problem and windy days cannot give you coverage you need.

Weed Control
Harmony Extra SC plus MCPA – per label, always add surfactant per label.

Express Plus MCPA – per label, always add surfactant per label. Gives good to excellent control on most winter weeds. DO NOT USE THIS ON OATS.

POWERFLEX and Others – per label, gives excellent weed and ryegrass control. Read label for plant back restrictions.

Good Growing!

** Information obtained from 2014 Georgia Pest Control Handbook and Intensive Wheat Management in Georgia. As always follow label and dispose of empties properly.

Wheat/Oat Update

If your wheat/oats are 4 inches (three or more tillers) tall or taller then you may need to put out your winter weed control. The weeds have really been growing because of the warm weather, and also can really hurt your yields. Chemical prices are up this year so please don’t cut out application because of the price, it will pay to control the weeds.

Take time to walk your wheat fields while the wheat is still young and you can count the plants per foot of row. If you find a row that is too thin or too thick flag that row on your drill and correct the seeding rate before you plant next year. A count of 18-20 plants per foot (7-8 inch row) is great, 25-30 is way too thick.

Weed Control
(See Small Grains 2014 from UGA)

Harmony Extra SC, per label always add surfactant per label.

Express Plus MCPA, per label always add surfactant per label. Gives good to excellent control on most winter weeds. DO NOT USE THIS ON OATS.

POWERFLEX and others, per label gives excellent weed and ryegrass control. Read label for plant back restrictions.

Good Growing!

** Information obtained from 2014 Georgia Pest Control Handbook and Intensive Wheat Management in Georgia. As always follow label and dispose of empties properly.

High Yield Wheat Management

  1. Collect samples for soil testing. Add lime, P, K, minor, and micro elements as called for by soil test interpretations. Use yield of 80 bu/acre on lab sheet. Deep till, then prepare a good seed bed prior to seeding, keep field traffic to a minimum at this time. Do not plant on a fluffy seed bed. No-til will work if drill is set properly and the ground has been deep tilled in the spring, a deep fall tillage is best. Paratill or Terra-Max can be used with very little disturbance to the surface residue for a fall tillage.
  1. Plant at a rate of 1,350,000 to 1,500,000 seed per acre (a wheat with 12,500 seed per pound will be 120 pounds of seed per acre the 1,500,000 seeding rate) or 32 to 44 seeds/sq. ft. or 18 to 28 seed/ft. of row in 7 to 8-inch row spacing or 8 to 14 seeds/ft. of row in 4-inch rows. Best planting depth is ¾ to less than 1.5 inches deep. PLEASE TREAT YOUR PLANTING SEED, THIS SHOULD GIVE YOU OVER 90% GERM AND A MUCH BETTER STAND. Insecticide plus funcicide treated seed are best (even if you are planting a fly resistance variety) or a timley fall spray for the control aphids which vector barley yellow dwarf.
  1. Apply for the crop year a total of 95 to 135 lb N. per acre plus a total of 30 lbs of sulfur per acre. Three applications is the best but less will work, 25 to 45 lbs N/acre at planting (behind cotton or corn 40 to 45 lbs of N), 40 to 60 lbs/acre 15 to 30 days prior to jointing (1-15- to 2-10-) , and 20 to 30 lbs/acre at first joint stage (3-01- to 3-20-). This is for following peanuts, high residue crops may require more nitrogen. Cotton needs be considered a high residue crop. Some varities need less Nitrogen to make the same yields please do not over apply N. 
  1. Use a Spring fungicide on all varieties. A spray of approved fungicide on the last day of application (at full heading or per label) is most important to help control glume blotch. Glume blotch hurts yields on the wheat heads, most funcicides do not translocate very well.
  1. Know the weed history of the site and identify weeds as soon as possible. On all seed fields you must use herbicides to control such weeds as wild radish, mustard, turnips, wild onion, garlic, and primrose. Several good chemicals will help control ryegrass, if it is a problem. All ryegrass chemicals work best if ryegrass has two or less (pinning) tillers, this could be in mid December on 11-15- planted wheat or (21-28 days after planting).

Good Growing

Soybean Grower Update

A good fungicide has proven to give a yield increase of 6-8 bu per acre over non-treated soybeans in university test. One spray per season is usally enough. To control velvetbean caterpillar and make loopers and stink bugs less of a pest add Dimlin. This year appears to be a very bad stink bug/Kudzu bug year. Look close at your fields cotton, peanut, and soybean especially if they are close to a harvested corn field because there has been several generations in your corn already. Soybeans planted in early-mid June are now in R3. ( R-3 = Pods at least 3/16 inch on the fourth node from top of plant ) You lose some effectiveness if you apply too early. If you have stink bugs think about putting in some pesticide. Watch for Kudzu bugs I have found them in every field.   For Information go to : http://www.kudzubug.org/grower.html

Good fungicide**

Plus

   Dimlin + 1.2 lbs of solubor per acre

Plus

Acephate (Orthene), Karate , Brigade , etc.

**Pesticide information obtained from Georgia Pest Control Handbook @ http://www.ent.uga.edu/pmh/.    

              

As always follow label and dispose of empties properly.

Good Growing!

 

 

Soybean Update

May planted growers need to check their fields for insects NOW. Three cornered Alfalfa Hoppers are really out in force along with the Kudzu bug. See picture of damage by Three Cornered Alfalfa  Hopper below. Often the stem will just break with wind or just walking through the field.

Kudzu bugs -2

Kudzu Bugs

3 cornered

3 Cornered Alfalfa Hoppers

Here are two very good sites for more information on Kudzu bugs:

Late Planting 

Please put 40-50 lbs. of N out following corn for best yields; plant with a drill on 7 in centers. AGS 5911 LL is a very good late planted bean and has Liberty tolerance. 

Good Growing!

*Some information obtained from 2014 Georgia Pest Control Handbook,                       Soybean Diagnostic Guide, and Dupont.

*** As always follow label and dispose of empties properly.

Soybean Update

Growers need to check their fields for insects NOW. Three cornered Alfalfa Hoppers are really out in full force along with the Kudzu bug. See picture of damage by Three Cornered Alfalfa Hopper and roots forming at damage site. Often the stem will just break with wind or just by walking through the field.

Three Cornered Alfalfa Hopper

Three Cornered Alfalfa Hopper

 

Three Cornered Alfalfa Hopper

Three Cornered Alfalfa Hopper

Late Planting

AGS 5911 LL is a very good late planted bean and has Liberty tolerance.

There are several group 5, 6, 7, and 8 group beans that have yielded very well planted late. You can read about Ultra Late Planting for details here on the blog.

Always follow label directions and wash all empties completely.

Good Growing!

*Some information obtained from 2014 Georgia Pest Control Handbook,                       Soybean Diagnostic Guide, and Dupont.

*** As always follow label and dispose of empties properly.